Turabian Parenthetical/Reference List Style

Table of Contents:
Parenthetical References
Citing Books
Citing Journal Articles
Citing Magazine Articles
Citing Websites
For More Help

The examples in this guide are meant to introduce you to the basics of citing sources using Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (seventh edition). Kate Turabian created her first "manual" in 1937 as a means of simplifying for students The Chicago Manual of Style; the seventh edition of Turabian is based on the 15th edition of the Chicago Manual. For types of resources not covered in this guide (e.g., government documents, manuscript collections, video recordings) and for further information, please consult the websites listed at the end of this guide, the handbook itself or a reference librarian.

The 15th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style recommends that researchers in the natural and social sciences adopt a parenthetical reference (or "author-date") style in combination with an alphabetically arranged reference list for documenting sources. For footnote or endnote style, please refer to the separate guide Turabian Footnote/Endnote Style. It is best to consult with your professor to determine the preferred citation style.


Parenthetical references should include the author's name, the date of publication and the page number(s) to which you refer. Examples:

Charles Hullmandel experimented with lithographic techniques throughout the early nineteenth century, patenting the "lithotint" process in 1840 (Twyman 1970, 145-146).

Human beings are the sources of "all international politics"; even though the holders of political power may change, this remains the same (Hudson 1997, 5).

If there is no page number, leave it out. If there is no author, use the title.



Include some or all of the following elements for each complete bibliographic citation in your reference list, in this order:

1. Author or editor;
2. Year of publication;
3. Title (capitalize titles and subtitles using sentence style; for example: Social theory as science: A brief inquiry);
4. Compiler, translator or editor (if listed in addition to an author);
5. Edition;
6. Name of series, including volume or number used;
7. Place of publication and publisher.

One Author or Editor, or Corporate Author

Hudson, Valerie N., ed. 1997. Culture and foreign policy. Boulder: L. Rienner Publishers.

Twyman, Michael.1970. Lithography 1800-1850. London: Oxford University Press.

UNICEF. 1999. Generation in jeopardy: Children in Central and Eastern Europe and the
           former Soviet Union. Edited by Alexander Zouev. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

Two or More Authors or Editors

Keat, Russell, and John Urry. 1982. Social theory as science. 2d. ed. London:

Meyer, Leonard B., Kendall Walton, Albert Hofstadter, Svetlana Alpers, George Kubler,
          Richard Wolheim, Monroe Beardsley, Seymour Chatman, Ann Banfield, and Hayden
          White. 1979. The concept of style. Edited by Berel Lang. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Electronic Books

Follow the guidelines for print books, adding collection (if there is one), URL and date accessed.

Rae, John. 1834. Statement of some new principles on the subject of political economy. Boston: Hillard, Gray and Company. In The Making of the Modern World, http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/MOME?af=RN&ae=U104874605&srchtp=a&ste=14 (accessed June 22, 2012).

Journal Articles

For an article available in more than one format (print, online, etc.), cite whichever one you used. Include some or all of the following elements in your reference list citations, in this order:

1. Author;
2. Year of publication;
3. Article title (capitalize titles and subtitles using sentence style; for example: Aristotle on metaphor);
4. Periodical title;
5. Volume or Issue number (or both);
6. Page numbers.

For online periodicals, add:
7. URL and date of access, or;
8. Database name, URL and date of access (if available, include database publisher and city of publication).


Freedman, Lawrence. 1998. The changing roles of military conflict. Survival 40, no. 4: 39-56.

Kirby, John T. 1997. Aristotle on metaphor. American Journal of Philology 118: 517-554.


Mallan, Kerry, and Natasha Giardina. 2009. Wikidentities: Young people collaborating on virtual identities in social network sites. First Monday 14, no. 6 (June). http://www.uic.edu/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/2445/2213 (accessed June 22, 2009).

Accessed Through an Online Database

Gaskill, Malcolm. 2008. The pursuit of reality: Recent research into the history of witchcraft. Historical Journal 51, no. 4: 1069-1088. America: History & Life, EBSCOhost (accessed June 22, 2009).

Magazine Articles

For an article available in more than one format (print, online, etc.), cite whichever one you used.


Goldberger, Paul. 1996. Machines for living: The architectonic allure of the automobile. Architectural Digest (October): 82.


Dickey, Christopher. 2008. Reflecting on race barriers. Newsweek, November 15. http://www.newsweek.com/id/169302 (accessed June 22, 2009).

Accessed Through an Online Database

Schlesinger Jr., Arthur M. 1966. McCarthyism is threatening us again. Saturday Evening Post 239, no. 17: 10-12. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed June 23, 2009).


In most cases, you will be citing something smaller than an entire website. If you are citing an article from a website, for example, follow the guidelines for articles above. You can usually refer to an entire website in running text without including it in your reference list, e.g.: "According to its website, the Financial Accounting Board requires ...".

If you need to cite an entire website in your reference list, include some or all of the following elements, in this order:

1. Author or editor of the website (if known)
2. Title of the website
3. URL
4. Date of access


Financial Accounting Standards Board. http://www.fasb.org (accessed April 29, 2009).


Following are links to sites that have additional information and alternative examples:

Turabian Quick Guide (University of Chicago Press)

Once you have created an account, go to Tools/Preview Output Style to see examples of Turabian style.

Purdue's Online Writing Lab (OWL)
Excellent source for research, writing and citation tips.

Citing Sources
Duke University's guide to citing sources. The site offers comparison citation tables with examples from APA, Chicago, MLA and Turabian for both print and electronic works.

How to Cite Electronic Sources
From the Library of Congress. Provides MLA and Turabian examples of citing formats like films, photographs, maps and recorded sound that are accessed electronically.

Tutorial: Citing Government Publications
The University of North Texas provides general guidelines for citing government publications as well as links to additional resources.